Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YTZP)

Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YTZP) is the strongest ceramic material we offer. YTZP is a purely tetragonal phase, fine grain material. This material offers the highest flexural strength of all Zirconia based materials. YTZP exhibits a trait called transformation toughening which allows it to resist crack propagation. Applied stress, magnified by the stress concentration at a crack tip, can cause the tetragonal phase to convert to monoclinic, with the associated volume expansion.

This phase transformation can then put the crack into compression, retarding its growth, and enhancing the fracture toughness. This mechanism significantly extends the reliability and lifetime of products made with stabilized zirconia. YTZP is well suited to replacing metals due to its extremely high strength and toughness, it also offers far higher resistance to chemicals and superior erosion resistance.

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Prime Features
Very high mechanical strengthVery low thermal conductivity
High impact resistanceHigh chemical resistance (acids/bases)
Very high wear resistanceHigh corrosion resistance
Very high erosion resistance 
Typical Applications
Structural ceramicsFiber optic ferrules and sleeves
Wear partsOxygen sensors
Cutting tools (knives, blades, shears)Precision ball valve, balls and seats
Deep well, down hole componentsRollers and guide for metal tube forming
Thread and wire guidesHot metal extrusion dies
Thermal barrier coatingsSolid oxide fuel cell components
Application Limitations
YTZP Properties degrade rapidly when exposed to water vapor at 200 - 300° C.Strength & toughness degrade with increasing temperature, generally limiting structural use to below 500° C.
Materials Property Chart
 Zirconias
 PropertyASTM MethodUnitsYTZP 2000 (Yttria Stabilized)YTZP 4000 (Yttria Stabilized)
GeneralCrystal Size (Average)Thin SectionMicrons11
Color----IvoryIvory
Gas Permeability--atms-cc/secgas tight <10-10gas tight <10-10
Water AbsorptionC 20-97%00
MechanicalDensityC 20-97g/cc6.026.07
HardnessVickers 500gmGPa (kg/mm2)12.5 (1250)12.5 (1250)
Hardness--R45N8080
Fracture ToughnessNotched BeamMPam1/21010
Flexural Strength (MOR)
(3 point) @ RT
F417-87MPa (psi x 103951 (138)1380 (200)
Tensile Strength @ RT--MPa (psi x 103)550 (80)690 (100)
Compressive Strength @ RT--MPa (psi x 103)2485 (360)2485 (360)
Elastic ModulusC848GPa (psi x 106)210 (30)210 (30)
Poisson's RatioC848--0.300.30
ThermalC.T.E. 25 - 100° CC 372-96x 10-6/C6.96.9
C.T.E. 25 - 300° CC 372-96x 10-6/C8.18.1
C.T.E. 25 - 600° CC 372-96x 10-6/C10.510.5
Thermal Conductivity @ RTC 408W/m K2.22.2
Max Use Temp--Farenheit (°F)932932
--Celsius (°C)500500
ElectricalDielectric Strength (.125" Thick)D 149-97AV/mil240240
Dielectric Constant @ 1 MHzD 150-98--30.030.0
Dielectric Loss @ 1 MHzD 150-98--0.00100.0010
Volume Resistivity, 25°CD 257ohms-cm> 1 x 1013> 1 x 1013
Volume Resistivity, 300°CD 1829ohms-cm1 x 10101 x 1010
Volume Resistivity, 500°CD 1829ohms-cm1 x 1061 x 106
Volume Resistivity, 700°CD 1829ohms-cm5 x 1035 x 103
Note: The information in this data sheet is for design guidance only. STC does not warrant this data as absolute values. Forming methods and specific geometry could affect properties. Slight adjustments can be made to some of the properties to accommodate specific customer requirements. Most of the dense materials in the table are resistant to mechanical erosion and chemical attack. STC has performed ASTM testing qualification for certain compositions, in accordance with ASTM D2442. Please consult our technical staff for appropriate material and specific test results.