Zirconias

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> Guide To Zirconia

Zirconia materials are among the strongest ceramic materials STC offers. Each stabilized zirconia provides unique and specific properties that meet the demands of extreme applications found in many industries. Offering very high strength, high toughness, wear/abrasion resistance, as well as corrosion resistance, they perform in operating environments that plastics, metals and other ceramic materials cannot withstand. Typical applications include structural components, bushings, pistons, sleeves, rollers, guides, insulators, and more.

  • MSZ – magnesia stabilized; for high-temperature applications; it is not vulnerable to phase transformations at elevated temperatures; heterogeneous microstructure to protect against grain boundary sliding; transformation toughened; high fracture toughness
  • YTZP – yttria stabilized; fine-grained microstructure predominantly tetragonal phase; extremely high strength and toughness; use temperatures below 500°C; transformation toughened to resist crack propagation; superior chemical resistance; excellent wear resistance
  • CSZ – ceria stabilized high temperature, as well as high or low pH environments; transformation toughened; maintains strength in steam and pressure conditions; ceria fills crystal structure vacancies to prevent low temperature degradation
  • ZTA – zirconia toughened alumina; provides 20-30% greater strength than alumina at a lower cost than stabilized zirconias. Transformation toughened; Higher toughness, hardness and wear resistance than alumina
 

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Prime Features
Performs Well In Corrosive Environments  
Typical Applications
Structural ceramic parts Aerospace
Medical Bearings
Analytical instrumentation  
Materials Property Chart
  Zirconias
  Property ASTM Method Units MSZ (Magnesia Stabilized) YTZP 2000 (Yttria Stabilized) YTZP 4000 (Yttria Stabilized) CSZ (Ceria Stabilized)
General Crystal Size (Average) Thin Section Microns 30 1 1 3
Color -- -- Ivory or Yellow Ivory Ivory Yellow
Gas Permeability -- atms-cc/sec gas tight <10-10 gas tight <10-10 gas tight <10-10 gas tight <10-10
Water Absorption C 20-97 % 0 0 0 0
Mechanical Density C 20-97 g/cc 5.72 6.02 6.07 6.20
Hardness Vickers 500gm GPa (kg/mm2) 11.7 (1200) 12.5 (1250) 12.5 (1250) 11.7 (1200)
Hardness -- R45N 78 80 80 78
Fracture Toughness Notched Beam MPam1/2 12 10 10 12
Flexural Strength (MOR)
(3 point) @ RT
F417-87 MPa (psi x 103 620 (90) 951 (138) 1380 (200) 551 (80)
Tensile Strength @ RT -- MPa (psi x 103) 310 (45) 550 (80) 690 (100) 337 (49)
Compressive Strength @ RT -- MPa (psi x 103) 1862 (270) 2485 (360) 2485 (360) 2000 (290)
Elastic Modulus C848 GPa (psi x 106) 206 (29.8) 210 (30) 210 (30) 200 (29)
Poisson's Ratio C848 -- 0.28 0.30 0.3 0.25
Thermal C.T.E. 25 - 100° C C 372-96 x 10-6/C 8.9 6.9 6.9 6.9
C.T.E. 25 - 300° C C 372-96 x 10-6/C 9.7 8.1 8.1 8.1
C.T.E. 25 - 600° C C 372-96 x 10-6/C 10 10.5 10.5 10.5
Thermal Conductivity @ RT C 408 W/m K 3 2.2 2.2 3.5
Max Use Temp -- Farenheit (°F) 2200 932 932 1000
-- Celsius (°C) 1200 500 500 537
Electrical Dielectric Strength (.125" Thick) D 149-97A V/mil 300 240 240 250
Dielectric Constant @ 1 MHz D 150-98 -- 22.7 30.0 30.0 30.0
Dielectric Constant D 2520-95 -- 29.2 -- -- --
@ Gigahertz D 2520-95 -- 6.2 -- -- --
Dielectric Loss @ 1 MHz D 150-98 -- 0.0016 0.0010 0.0010 0.0010
Dielectric Loss D 2520-95 -- 0.0018 -- -- --
@ Gigahertz D 2520-95 -- 6.2 -- -- --
Volume Resistivity, 25°C D 257 ohms-cm > 1 x 1013 > 1 x 1013 > 1 x 1013 > 1 x 1013
Volume Resistivity, 300°C D 1829 ohms-cm 5 x 107 1 x 1010 1 x 1010 1 x 1010
Volume Resistivity, 500°C D 1829 ohms-cm 1 x 107 1 x 106 1 x 106 1 x 106
Volume Resistivity, 700°C D 1829 ohms-cm 2 x 106 5 x 103 5 x 103 5 x 103
Note: The information in this data sheet is for design guidance only. STC does not warrant this data as absolute values. Forming methods and specific geometry could affect properties. Slight adjustments can be made to some of the properties to accommodate specific customer requirements. Most of the dense materials in the table are resistant to mechanical erosion and chemical attack. STC has performed ASTM testing qualification for certain compositions, in accordance with ASTM D2442. Please consult our technical staff for appropriate material and specific test results.